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Backfield and Bambra(SSM 2016) 社会政策は寿命に影響するのか






Beckfield, J., & Bambra, C. (2016). "Shorter lives in stingier states: Social policy shortcomings help explain the US mortality disadvantage.Social Science & Medicine, 171, 30–38. 



The United States has a mortality disadvantage relative to its political and economic peer group of other rich democracies. Recently it has been suggested that there could be a role for social policy in explaining this disadvantage. In this paper, we test this “social policy hypothesis” by presenting a time-series cross-section analysis from 1970 to 2010 of the association between welfare state generosity (for unemployment insurance, sickness benefits, and pensions) and life expectancy, for the US and 17 other high-income countries. Fixed-effects estimation with autocorrelation-corrected standard errors (robust to unmeasured between-country differences and serial autocorrelation of repeated measures) found strong associations between welfare generosity and life expectancy. A unit increase in overall welfare generosity yields a 0.17 year increase in life expectancy at birth (p < 0.001), and a 0.07 year increase in life expectancy at age 65 (p < 0.001). The strongest effects of the welfare state are in the domain of pension benefits (b = 0.439 for life expectancy at birth, p < 0.001; b = 0.199 for life expectancy at age 65, p < 0.001). Models that lag the measures of social policy by ten years produce similar results, suggesting that the results are not driven by endogeneity bias. There is evidence that the US mortality disadvantage is, in part, a welfare-state disadvantage. We estimate that life expectancy in the US would be approximately 3.77 years longer, if it had just the average social policy generosity of the other 17 OECD nations.





・改正の趣旨は「地域包括ケアシステムを強化するため、市町村介護保険事業計画の記載事項への被保険者の地域における自立した日常生活の支援等に関する施策等の追加、当該施策の実施に関する都道府県及び国による 支援の強化、長期療養が必要な要介護者に対して医療及び介護を一体的に提供する介護医療院の創設、 一定以上の所得を有する要介護被保険者等の保険給付に係る利用者負担の見直し並びに被用者保険等保険者に係る介護給付費・地域支援事業支援納付金の額の算定に係る総報酬割の導入等の措置を講ずること。」 





磐田市では,平成27年度から,妻や母親らを介護する男性介護者を対象に「ケアメン講座」を 開催している.




















































Geijtenbeek and Plug (2015) 性転換からみる男女間賃金格差


Geijtenbeek, L., & Plug, E. (2015). Is There a Penalty for Becoming a Woman? Is There a Premium for Becoming a Man? Evidence from a Sample of Transsexual Workers. IZA Discussion Paper. No. 9077

We study the earnings of transsexuals using Dutch administrative labor force data. First, we compare transsexuals to other women and men, and find that transsexuals earn more than women and less than men. Second, we compare transsexuals before and after transition using worker fixed effects models, and find a fall in earnings for men who become women and a smaller rise (if any) in earnings for women who become men. These earnings patterns, which hold for annual as well as hourly earnings, are consistent with a labor market model in which workers are discriminated for being female and transsexual.

Xu and Xie (2015) ヴィネット調査による主観的健康観バイアス補正


Xu, H., & Xie, Y. (2015). Assessing the Effectiveness of Anchoring Vignettes in Bias Reduction for Socioeconomic Disparities in Self-rated Health among Chinese Adults. Sociological Methodology, 0081175015599808. Online First. 


The authors investigate how reporting heterogeneity may bias socioeconomic and demographic disparities in self-rated general health, a widely used health indicator, and how such bias can be adjusted by using new anchoring vignettes designed in the 2012 wave of the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS). The authors find systematic variation by sociodemographic characteristics in thresholds used by respondents in rating their general health status. Such threshold shifts are often nonparallel in that the effect of a certain group characteristic on the shift is stronger at one level than another. The authors find that the resulting bias of measuring group differentials in self-rated health can be too substantial to be ignored. They demonstrate that the CFPS anchoring vignettes prove to be an effective survey instrument in obtaining bias-adjusted estimates of health disparities not only for the CFPS sample but also for an independent sample from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. Effective adjustment for reporting heterogeneity may require vignette administration only to a small subsample (20 percent to 30 percent of the full sample). Using a single vignette can be as effective as using more in terms of anchoring, but the results are sensitive to the choice of vignette design.

Altman et al. (2016) 主観的健康観は何を意味するか


Altman, C. E., Van Hook, J., & Hillemeier, M. (2016). What Does Self-rated Health Mean? Changes and Variations in the Association of Obesity with Objective and Subjective Components Of Self-rated Health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 57(1), 39–58. 


There are concerns about the meaning of self-rated health (SRH) and the factors individuals consider. To illustrate how SRH is contextualized, we examine how the obesity–SRH association varies across age, periods, and cohorts. We decompose SRH into subjective and objective components and use a mechanism-based age–period–cohort model approach with four decades (1970s to 2000s) and five birth cohorts of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (N = 26,184). Obese adults rate their health more negatively than non-obese when using overall SRH with little variation by age, period, or cohort. However, when we decomposed SRH into objective and subjective components, the obesity gap widened with increasing age in objective SRH but narrowed in subjective SRH. Additionally, the gap narrowed for more recently born cohorts for objective SRH but widened for subjective SRH. The results provide indirect evidence that the relationship between obesity and SRH is socially patterned according to exposure to information about obesity and the availability of resources to manage it.