Azose et al. (2016) 移民の不確実性を考慮した確率的人口予測


Azose, J. J., Ševčíková, H., & Raftery, A. E. (2016). Probabilistic population projections with migration uncertainty. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(23), 6460–6465. 

We produce probabilistic projections of population for all countries based on probabilistic projections of fertility, mortality, and migration. We compare our projections to those from the United Nations’ Probabilistic Population Projections, which uses similar methods for fertility and mortality but deterministic migration projections. We find that uncertainty in migration projection is a substantial contributor to uncertainty in population projections for many countries. Prediction intervals for the populations of Northern America and Europe are over 70% wider, whereas prediction intervals for the populations of Africa, Asia, and the world as a whole are nearly unchanged. Out-of-sample validation shows that the model is reasonably well calibrated.